Bio-based chemicals are gaining interest as alternatives or additional sources of chemicals. Among them,organic acids are promising as building blocks and chemical platforms. To integrate the chemical industry supply chain, bio-based products must become commodity products and meet current specifications applied to petro-based chemicals in terms of quality and purity. This article will illustrate several purification challenges that manufacturers encounter by describing an industrial manufacturing process for citric acid production from fermentation to purification.
Each step will be reviewed and explained with special emphasis on the continuous chromatography step based on acid retardation since it is the core operation unit of the described purification process.
Molecules reaching the market in the recent years present an ever-growing complexity. In the meantime, purity criteria are more important than ever to ensure patients safety. The combination of these two facts represents a big challenge for the manufacturing industry where the right combination of state-of-the-art synthesis and advanced purification is necessary to meet the demand in a cost-effective and time-efficient manner. This paper presents membrane filtration and chromatography as efficient technologies to reach the required purity level. The use of these technologies at industrial scale is illustrated through a case study including a complex biocatalysis reaction and the complete downstream processing yielding the final, pure product. The scale-up from gram to hundred kilogram scale, process efficiency and timelines are also considered.
Carbon monoxide can be used to transform a wide range of substrates. In the process, the carbon chain is extended and an attractive functionality, a carbonyl group, is added. In many cases, instead of a multi-step synthesis, the targeted product can be obtained in a single selective catalytic step, resulting in a substantially higher overall yield.This is particularly important for long synthesis sequences.
Downstream processing is a sequence of unit process operations that purify biopharmaceuticals and prepare them primarily for bulk formulation. Typically, a large volume is delivered from an upstream fermentation or cell culture process.
Armodafinil, the (R)-enantiomer of modafinil, is a medication used to treat the excessive sleepiness associated with narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome, and shift work sleep disorder. We report here the chemical development of armodafinil and the investigations that led to a commercial route to prepare this pure enantiomer. Three synthetic approaches were used to provide the chiral sulfoxide.
Une méthode est élaborée pour déterminer la solubilité des substances organiques dans une large gamme de solvant. La méthode et l'appareillage sont d'abord testés pour déterminer la solubilité de la DL-sérine, qui représente un cas où les données de solubilité sont connues avec précision. Un excellent accord est obtenu entre les valeurs de solubilité obtenues par notre méthode et les valeurs fournies par la littérature ; l'erreur maximale ne dépasse pas 0,9%. La méthode ainsi validée, est utilisée dans un cas concret pour construire le diagramme de solubilité du mélange des énantiomères d'ibuprofène dans l'hexane. Cette étude a montré que la méthode proposée est fiable, peu coûteuse et facile à mettre en oeuvre pour tous les produits organiques solubles dans pratiquement n'importe quel type de solvant.
The authors describe the advantages of the production of liquid sugars directly from the fine liquor of the refinery.
Using ion-exchange refining, it is possible to produce high quality liquid sugars, without crystallization, suitable for the food industry markets : liquid sucrose, medium or total invert liquid sugar ...
The advantages for the refinery are obvious :
- The decolorized (fine) liquor is a perfect raw material, filtered and decolorized.
- Using the fine liquor for the production of liquid sugars instead of refined sugar frees extra capacity of crystallization for the production of refined sugar.
- The processing costs of liquid sugar are lower : less energy requirement, better yield of extraction.
The objective is to review the latest developments and focusing on the technical and cost/performance aspects of activated carbon and ion exchange processes. Nowadays the environmental constrains are increasing and the energy cost is quite volatile therefore it is essential to consider these aspects before selecting a decolorization process.
The presence of divalent ionic species in many food streams are a drawback for further processing steps such as membrane filtration, crystallisation and chromatographic ion exclusion. Cationic ion exchange resins operating in Na or K form have been widely used for eliminating the divalent ions for which they present a high affinity. However the presence of complexing agent reduces the decalcification yield. Our study has demonstrated that a combination of a strong base resin and a strong acid cation resin regenerated in series with a monovalent salt solution can improve the decalcification process in whey products. Used prior to the nanofiltration step, the new decalcification process permits to produce a highly
demineralised whey, up to 70% whereas without such a pre-treatment only 30% or 45% with diafiltration are obtained. Furthermore additional benefits are anticipated either in the production of lactose after crystallisation or by downsizing the demineralisation unit.